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发布日期:2021-03-19 00:29:02 发布者:Admin5  点击率:

Speaking of the possibility of restarting the Premier League in mid-June, many people expressed concern, including Bruce and Sterling. The Newcastle United coach said in an interview with the "Daily Telegraph": "We need enough time to adjust the state of the players, otherwise they will fall down like playing cards."


When connecting with the US women’s football captain Megan Rapierno on social networks, Sterling also expressed similar concerns. He said: “We need four to five weeks (for pre-season training), especially You have to face the intense and intense Premier League and you have to do your best to win every game. So you have to prepare for this and you can't rush."

斯特林在社交网络上与美国女足队长梅根·拉皮尔诺(Megan Rapierno)联系时,也表达了类似的担忧。他说:“我们需要四到五个星期的时间(进行季前训练),尤其是您必须面对激烈的英超联赛,并且必须竭尽全力赢得每场比赛。因此,您必须为此做好准备,您不能着急。”

The Premier League clubs have voted, and the teams can return to the training ground the next day.


The most recent Premier League match took place on March 9th. The two sides were Leicester City and Aston Villa. More than two months have passed. Since then, teams have only been able to remotely monitor the players’ training through a variety of tracking technologies.


But here comes the question-to what extent can basic training such as treadmills, training bikes, and biceps curl keep players in shape? How much effort do players and coaches need to make to meet the needs of competitive games? Once the game kicks off, how will this unprecedented long "vacation" affect the players on the field?


In order to help answer these questions, The Athletic specifically visited Professor Magny Moore and Steve Taszgian. The former worked at the University of Southern Denmark, a world-leading football research organization, and jointly published an article on new How the coronavirus pneumonia affects the scientific reports of top football leagues; the latter is the chief performance analyst of the US men’s football team and has served as the head of sports science at Everton for five years.

为了帮助回答这些问题,田径运动专门拜访了Magny Moore教授和Steve Taszgian教授。前者曾在世界领先的足球研究组织南丹麦大学工作,并共同发表了一篇关于冠状病毒性肺炎如何影响顶级足球联赛科学报告的文章。后者是美国男子足球队的首席绩效分析师,并在埃弗顿担任了五年的体育科学主管。

Moore believes that this largely depends on the training content of the players during the truce. He believes that most players will focus on endurance training. Moore said: "The players' endurance training may help them maintain the necessary physical fitness, but their physical function will still lose a considerable part, about 20%."


Tashkian believes that aside from the physical function, the players still need to work on the psychological aspect. He said that without the help of teammates and coaching staff, it is psychologically difficult for players to cope with high energy consumption output for 90 consecutive minutes. Tashkian said: "No matter what position you play, you will try to run 10 to 13 kilometers in every game, and you will try to stay focused and deal with various situations as before. They may be able to do it now, but in After leaving the field for so long, it will definitely be a little bit powerless."


The physical function required to meet the competition is not only endurance. Moore said that some players do have complete training facilities at home, but players need more training with the ball. He said: "This is the biggest problem, because when the players return to the club, some of them may get good results in physical fitness tests, but physical fitness is just one of many physical fitness. For example, emergency stop Change of direction and determination, these things cannot be obtained from the gym or training alone."


Moore also cited a specific example. He said that from the 1970s to the 1980s, pre-season training included a lot of running training, because physical training and ball training were separate. Today, at the top league level, clubs will combine high-tech elements, tactical exercises and physical training. This means that the players are not only "fit for physical fitness", but "fit for the game."


In Moore's report, football was described as "a compound sport that is a disorderly combination of endurance sports, high-intensity running, and muscle power, with varying recovery intervals." In addition to these factors, football also requires players to have a series of football-related skills and the ability to make quick decisions. Moore concluded in the report that it is very difficult for athletes who engage in complex sports like football to maintain their competitive form during the offseason.


The rate of decline of different abilities is also different. Moore explained that if a player stops training, his various parameters will gradually decline. The first to bear the brunt is explosiveness, speed, flexibility, physical fitness and other physiological indicators. "But if you don't stop training but just reduce the amount of training, you can keep these items at the original 80%-85% level." However, this is still a problem for players who rely on speed and explosive power to play. Big problem.

不同能力的下降速度也不同。摩尔解释说,如果球员停止训练,他的各种参数将逐渐下降。首当其冲的是爆炸性,速度,柔韧性,体能和其他生理指标。 “但是,如果您不停止训练而只是减少训练量,则可以将这些项目保持在原来的80%-85%水平。”但是,对于依靠速度和爆发力进行比赛的玩家来说,这仍然是一个问题。大问题。

There is another aspect to consider, that is, how the coaching staff arranges and arranges when the players have no idea when to start. Some coaches believe that the game will restart in a few weeks, while others believe that the suspension will last for a long time. Tashkian believes that the coaches' reaction will greatly affect the players' state. Tashkian once represented the American men's football and European mainstream league teams to communicate how to prepare for the restart of training.


"Some teams have arranged high-intensity training from the beginning and tried to maintain the overall weekly training capacity, as if to say,'Prepare everything as early as possible. If the game starts in three weeks, we can also handle it.' There are also teams. I think this is a good opportunity for the players to take a break. They will give the players a period of rest and then gradually help them adjust their state."


Now coaches need to estimate the time to restart the league, and then make various plans so that the players can balance between rest and preparation. For professional coaches who used to rely on large amounts of data and information to make decisions, they now face too many unknown factors.


First of all, a new coronavirus test must be carried out. "If you want players to go all out in training, you first need to give them a sense of security," Tashkian said. "From this point of view, playing football is no different from other types of work. You want to be in a safe enough working environment. The club needs to show the players how the team will carry out sanitation work, how to carry out quarantine work, and tell the players. We can return to the training ground with peace of mind, and the team will take care of them."

首先,必须进行新的冠状病毒测试。塔什干说:“如果你想让球员们在训练中全力以赴,首先需要给他们一种安全感。” “从这个角度来看,踢足球与其他类型的工作没有什么不同。您想要在一个足够安全的工作环境中。俱乐部需要向球员们展示球队如何进行环卫工作,如何进行检疫。工作,并告诉球员。我们可以放心地回到训练场,团队会照顾他们。”

The second is blood sample testing. Tashkian said this needs to be completed within 48 hours of the players returning to the training base, so that the club can grasp the player's antigen and antibody status. As we all know, high-intensity training will affect the immune system of players, so the club must understand the number of white blood cells of the players to monitor their immune system.


Tashkian also said that the club will introduce an immune protection program to protect the players' immune system, which is the same as the items that players have come into contact with before returning from the holiday. "High-intensity training can cause immune suppression, so you must introduce specific measures to protect the players' immune systems."

塔什干还说,俱乐部将引入一项免疫保护程序,以保护球员的免疫系统,这与球员从假期归来之前接触过的物品相同。 “高强度训练会导致免疫抑制,因此您必须采取特定措施来保护运动员的免疫系统。”

In the past, when the players returned from the holidays, the coaches would arrange a series of physical fitness tests for the players, and this time it is estimated that there will be no exception. This set of tests includes a turn-back run test and a 30-15 intermittent fitness test (30-15 intermittent fitness test refers to a 30-second turn-back run on a 40-meter straight track, and then a 15-second walk Recovery time, speed up by one level every 45 seconds).


But considering that there are only three weeks to prepare, Tashkian believes that some teams will simplify the testing process. The US national team usually conducts a three-week training camp in January each year. Tashkian has rich experience in this area and he believes that he can use his time more efficiently. "I often ask, ‘what will the test result tell me?’ Tell me the players are not in good physical condition? Then there is no need, because we already know it.

但是考虑到只有三个星期的准备时间,塔什干认为,有些团队将简化测试过程。美国国家队通常在每年一月进行为期三周的训练营。塔什干在这方面具有丰富的经验,他相信自己可以更有效地利用自己的时间。 “我经常问,‘测试结果会告诉我什么?’告诉我球员身体状况不佳?那就没有必要了,因为我们已经知道了。

"If you are not particularly clear about the players' attitudes towards these tests, then I suggest you use some fatigue tests with less intensity. This fatigue test can be integrated into daily training. We have been uninterrupted throughout the season. Using it, through the fatigue test, we can get the players’ heart rate recovery speed. This way you don’t have to waste three hours to specifically test the players’ physical fitness."


Moore believes that some players can return to full blood, they can maintain the original level of 90%-95%. Tashkian agreed, because as mentioned above, the US national team often conducts a three-week training camp in January to prepare for friendly matches.


But there is a key difference between league and national team friendly matches-preparing for a friendly match and playing 9 or 10 league matches in a short time are not the same concept. Obviously the latter is more difficult, Tashkian said: "Just like you help the players save up their energy to prepare for a 90-minute match, (preparing for the league) is also a gradual process of adaptation. You need to adjust the players’ bodies. It takes three weeks to reach this point in the season."


In normal times, after a Saturday game, the club will resume work on Monday night, and then arrange high-intensity training on Tuesday morning. How to get the players to recover within 48 hours has always been the focus of the top league teams. In general, Tashkian believes that the players can already accept the full season Saturday-Wednesday-Saturday game schedule. But before that, a lot of preparatory work needs to be done.


"So, three weeks, is it enough to prepare for a high-level game? Tashkian asked. "Enough. But this is not the real problem. The real question is: Is three weeks enough to prepare for a game schedule like Saturday-Wednesday-Saturday? The answer is unlikely. "

“所以,三个星期,足以准备一场高水平的比赛吗?塔什干问。”足够了。但这不是真正的问题。真正的问题是:三个星期是否足以准备周六至周三至周六的比赛时间表?答案不大可能。 ”

In such a limited time, forcing the players to adapt to the intensity of the three-week match, the physical pressure on the players can be imagined, and this puts a test on their immune system.


In addition to providing advice on sleep, wearing tight training clothes and sticking to a carbohydrate-rich diet are also beneficial to athletes' physical recovery. Mohr’s research topic suggests the use of creatine kinase (creatine kinase is more abundant in skeletal muscle, myocardium, and smooth muscle. After muscle damage, the concentration of creatine kinase in the blood will rise) and prolonged muscle soreness and other indicators To track the fatigue of the players after the game.

除了提供睡眠建议外,穿紧身训练服并坚持富含碳水化合物的饮食对运动员的身体恢复也有好处。 Mohr的研究主题建议使用肌酸激酶(骨骼肌,心肌和平滑肌中的肌酸激酶含量较高。在肌肉受损后,血液中肌酸激酶的浓度会上升)并延长肌肉酸痛等指标赛后球员疲劳。

Moore pointed out that when the players return to the training ground, the coaches will face a "Catch-22" situation. In order for the players to regain their physical fitness, they need to focus on training games. But if the players can't even handle the training game, then the problem is big. In this regard, Moore said: "I hope that the teams will treat the training game in a gradual manner. Before the official game starts, maybe three training games can be arranged, the first game is 30 minutes, the second game is 45-50 minutes, and that's it. step by step.

摩尔指出,当球员返回训练场时,教练员将面临“ Catch-22”的情况。为了让玩家恢复体能,他们需要专注于训练游戏。但是,如果玩家甚至不能处理训练游戏,那么问题就很大了。对此,摩尔说:“我希望各队能够逐步对待训练比赛。在正式比赛开始之前,也许可以安排三场训练比赛,第一场为30分钟,第二场为45- 50分钟,仅此而已。

Letting the players play for a long time may help them find the feeling of the game earlier, but the recovery period of the players after the game is very long, and too long playing time will affect their training quality in the following days. So a tricky question is: what do you want from these three weeks of preparation? Is it a better game feeling? Or more physical fitness?


This is indeed a question that has to be considered. Tashkian said: "In fact, what the high position pressure tactics require is not speed, but the ability to deal with complex situations and the ability to adjust their own rhythm according to the opponent's tactics-these abilities are what a team loses most during the offseason. To regain these abilities, it’s unrealistic to talk about soldiers outside the football field."


As for the quality of the competition, this needs to be further investigated. It's time to test the depth of the lineup, and put forward high demands on the head coach's ability to adjust the team lineup and optimize the allocation of physical strength. Moore explained that even if they have a complete preparation cycle on weekdays, there are often players who say that they are "looking for state while playing the game." Some high-profile teams often arrange commercial tours in the Americas and/or Asia in the summer, so the team万博体育官网地址’s preparation cycle will be compressed, and players often need to practice by matches until half a season before they can adjust their state to the most good.


Tashkian believes that the situation is somewhat similar to the above. The players originally needed six weeks to prepare for the game, but now they are told that the official game will start in three weeks. "If you spend six weeks preparing for the game, the cooperation between the players will be more tacit and more dynamic. There is a theory that the team's state can only get worse, because as the season progresses, they will get better and worse. I’m getting more and more tired, but I have a reservation about it. You’ll find that as the season stretches, although some players may encounter physical problems like this, their technical proficiency and sense of the ball continue to improve.

塔什干认为,情况与上述情况有些相似。玩家最初需要六周的时间来准备比赛,但现在他们被告知正式比赛将在三周内开始。 “如果花六个星期为比赛做准备,那么球员之间的合作将会更加默契和更加活跃。有一种理论认为,球队的状态只会变得更糟,因为随着赛季的进行,他们的状态会越来越好。我越来越疲倦,但对此我持保留态度,您会发现,随着赛季的延长,尽管有些球员可能会遇到诸如此类的身体问题,但他们的技术水平和球感仍在不断提高。

Therefore, on the one hand, a long preparation period can be very helpful in running the lineup and adjusting the personal status. On the other hand, the long preparation period is likely to affect the players' physical reserves, which is especially obvious at the end of the season—— This is a delicate balance. In this regard, Tashkian said: "Each team will make its own choices. Too short preparation time may not be a good thing, but I don't think the quality of the game will drop too significantly."


A generally accepted view is that long-term isolation training for players during the offseason will increase the risk of non-confrontational injuries after they return to the team. Moore pointed out in the study that if a player continues to train without the ball for four weeks, and the training intensity is 20%-40% of the usual, if you want to reduce the risk of injury after returning to normal training, then the intermediate adjustment time needs to be approximately Three to five weeks.


For this reason, the authors of this research report suggested that football rules should be temporarily revised in order to reduce the intensity of the game and physical energy consumption. Previously, PFA (Professional Football Players Association of England) President Gordon Taylor mentioned the modification of the duration of the game. Although these authors are not so radical, they also echo the former's proposal-they hope to increase the number of players allowed to come on the bench in each game. This proposal was approved by IFAB (International Football Association Council).

因此,本研究报告的作者建议应暂时修改足球规则,以减少比赛强度和体力消耗。此前,PFA(英格兰专业足球运动员协会)主席Gordon Taylor提到了比赛时间的修改。尽管这些作者并不那么激进,但他们也赞同前者的提议-他们希望增加每场比赛中允许进入替补席的球员数量。这项建议已获得IFAB(国际足球协会理事会)的批准。

Since it comes to injuries, the biggest threat is what we said above. Players' training content during the offseason is that the capacity is limited, and the second is that there is less training with the ball, but in the official game a lot of changes and sharp turns are required. Suddenly, whether their bodies can stand it is a big question. From this perspective, the role of training is limited. Moore said: "When you train around the pile, you move to the left and front, and then change direction to the right to bypass the pile. Your nervous system is always in a more relaxed state. But in the game, the players They need to make decisions in a very short time. They need to change directions at high speeds and rely more on explosive power. Their efficiency in changing directions is not as high as in training. Training will never reach the intensity of actual combat."


Moore and Tashkian agreed that the most likely part of a player to be injured would be the groin and adductors. Tashkian said: "The key to the question is whether they have fully exercised the muscles and adductors of the pelvis during the offseason, and then whether these sensitive parts can withstand the sudden increase in pressure. In the offseason During the period, taking into account the limitations of training conditions, it is difficult to popularize the relevant knowledge of how to train the groin and adductor muscles to the players."


Tashkian believes that after a long offseason, the players returning to the training ground will feel energetic, but the hidden dangers of injury will follow. He said: "When your players feel full of energy, it's like a blank canvas spread out in front of you. Not only can you draw a beautiful picture, but you can also ruin it completely by scribbling."


Despite the long period of rest, some team coaches had to put up the main lineup from the beginning to fight continuously under the pressure of record. For these teams, Tashkian believes that the players will not seem to be affected much in the beginning, but burnout and injury risks will gradually appear after three weeks. He said: "If a head coach does not use rotation and smashes into a main lineup of 11 to 13 people, I think that by the third week, the players' ligament and tendon problems will be revealed. Things are going fast. It won’t."

尽管休息了很长时间,但一些团队教练还是不得不从一开始就布置主力阵容,以便在战绩不佳的情况下持续战斗。塔什干认为,对于这些球队来说,球员一开始似乎并没有受到太大的影响,但是在三周之后,职业倦怠和受伤的风险将逐渐显现。他说:“如果主教练不使用轮换,摔成一个11至13人的主力阵容,我认为到第三周,球员的韧带和肌腱问题就会显现出来。事情进展很快。 '。

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